Constitution

Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws of the Afghan Economic Society in effect on Mai, 2017

We, the undersigned, hereby certify:

I. The name of title by which the society shall be known, is THE AFGHAN ECONOMIC SOCIETY which “AES” is used from now on as the formal abbreviation.

II. The time for which it is organized is perpetual.

III. The office of the Afghan Economic Society shall be located at an Afghan University. At the time of foundation the office is located at the University of Kabul.

IV. The particular characteristics, activities and objectives of the society are as follows:

1. Characteristics:

The Afghan Economic Society (AES) is a private, non-profit, non-political organization of Afghan scholars interested in studies of economic and business issues concerning Afghanistan in the broadest sense of the term. The AES shall operate in a non-discriminatory, democratic, transparent and academic manner which will not commit its members to particular economic ideologies, or any position on practical economic issues or policies.

2. Activities and objectives:

a. Promoting and conducting research to build a better understanding of the economic challenges and opportunities within Afghanistan’s private and public sector and within Afghanistan’s economic relations to the world.
b. Promoting relationships with the national and international public and private sector as well as with national and international academic bodies.
c. Supporting the Ministry of Higher Education and the Afghan Universities to improve and standardize the higher education system in Afghanistan through the revision of curricula, educational programs, teaching and examination procedures related to economics.
d. Establishing a data depository to store relevant data and publications in order to facilitate potential research and make information publicly available.
e. Other necessary actions to build a better understanding of Afghanistan’s economy.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF we have made and signed the foregoing certificate this

May, 2017

Abdullah Adil (MSc Ruhr-University Bochum), Nangarhar University
Mohammad Haroon Asadi (MSc Ruhr-University Bochum), Balkh University
Kawoon Azizi (MSc Ruhr-University Bochum), Nangarhar University
Hamidullah Farooqi (MA City University of New York), Kabul University
Sami Noor (PhD University of Bonn, MA Vanderbilt University)
Mohammadullah Rafea (MSc Ruhr-University Bochum), Balkh University

Bylaws of the Afghan Economic Society in effect on Mai, 2017

ARTICLE I. MEMBERSHIP

Persons and institutions interested in Afghanistan-related economic research may, on the nomination of a regular member and upon acceptance of the nomination by the AES Executive Board, be enrolled in the Society. There are different types of memberships in the Society.

1. Regular Membership: Includes all interested economists of Afghan citizenship holding an internationally recognized postgraduate degree and actively support the Society to achieve its objectives. The Regular Members have the right (i) to nominate and to be nominated for and, (ii), to vote on the selection of the Executive Board, and they have, (iii), the right to nominate candidates for an Honorary Membership. The Regular Member’s fee is Zero US$ per year. The Executive Board can decide to increase the Regular Member’s fee by 5 US$ per year up to 15 US$ per year. This decision needs the approval of the Regular Membership before getting effective. Refusal to pay the approved annual fee terminates the AES Membership.

2. Honorary Membership: Includes Afghan and international economic professionals willing to pursue the objectives of the Society and having made important contributions (i) either to the field of economic research and teaching or (ii) to the promotion of higher education in Afghanistan or (iii) to the advancement of development, job creation and poverty reduction in Afghanistan. Honorary Members are non-voting and non-nominating. Regular Members have the right to nominate candidates for Honorary Membership. Upon nomination, the Executive Board elects a maximal number of five additional Honorary Members per calendar year. Past presidents of the Society shall be AES Honorary Members. There is no fee for Honorary Members.

3. Institutional Membership: Includes all national or international institutions, organizations and business entities that share the values and the interests of the Society and which are not engaged in partisan political or propaganda activities. An institution’s, an organization’s or a business entity’s application for Institutional Membership is decided by the Executive Board. The Institutional Members are non-nominating and non-voting, however, they will receive special membership benefits offered by the Society. The Institutional Membership fee is 100 US$ p.a. The Executive Board can decide to increase the Institutional Member’s fee by 20 US$ per year. This decision needs the approval of the General Assembly of the regular Members before getting effective. Refusal to pay the approved annual membership fee terminates the AES Membership.

ARTICLE II. OFFICERS AND EXECUTIVE BOARD

1. The Society shall have the following officers: a President, a Vice-President, a Secretary, a Treasurer and an Advisor. In the foundation period (2017-2019), the terms for all officers shall be three years, each. Subsequent terms are 2 years. At maximum, one reelection (= 2 terms) is allowed.

2. For all officers, each regular term of office shall begin on the day of election of officers by the membership. Provided, however, that in the event the next meeting of the membership has not been held within the above defined terms, the terms of all officers end on January 1 of the subsequent year.

3. The AES Executive Board shall consist of the President, the Vice-President, the Secretary, the Treasurer and the Advisor.

ARTICLE III. ELECTION PROCEDURES

1. One year before the end of office terms, the Advisor shall appoint a Nominating Committee for the following year, this Committee to consist of six Regular Members of the Society. The Nominating Committee must consist of one Regular Member each of the University of Balkh, Bamyan, Herat, Kabul, Kandahar and Nangarhar. The names of the Committee shall be announced to the membership immediately following its appointment and the membership invited to suggest nominees for the various offices to the Committee. The Nominating Committee for each term shall be instructed to present to the Executive Board not later than six months prior to the AES elections at least two names of Regular Members to be considered as nominee for the AES-Offices. The members of the Nominating Committee and of the Executive Board shall constitute an Electoral College which shall consider the names of members presented and select a single candidate for each office by voting. In voting in the Electoral College the AES President has two votes, each other member shall have one vote so that the Executive Board and the Nominating Committee have the same number of votes in the Electoral College.

2. The Secretary shall announce the actions of the Nominating Committee and the Electoral College to members of the Association not later than three months prior to the next elections.

3. The election of officers by the membership shall take place by a ballot conducted by the Secretary within the quarter of the year in which the officers’ terms end. The ballot shall list all nominees alphabetically. Space shall be provided on the ballot for the individual voter’s alternative choice for all offices. The Secretary shall distribute the ballots to all members at latest one month prior to the end of term which at the same time serves as a deadline for receipt of ballots in the Secretary’s office. Using adequate online tools to facilitate the voting process is allowed.

4. The candidates with the highest number of votes for the various offices will be elected. The results of the election shall be certified and announced at the next General Meeting of the AES and immediately on the AES website.

ARTICLE IV. DUTIES OF THE OFFICERS AND OF THE EXECUTIVE BOARD

1. The President of the AES shall preside at all meetings of the Association and of the Executive Board. In case of her/his disability, her/his duties shall devolve upon the Vice President, upon the Secretary, and upon the Treasurer. The President shall be responsible for the program for the AES General Meetings of the terms she/he serves. She/He may at his discretion appoint a Program Committee to assist her/him.

2. The Secretary shall keep the records of the Society and perform such other duties as the Executive Board may assign her/him.

3. The Treasurer shall receive and have custody of the funds of the Association, subject to the rules of the Executive Board. He/She is responsible for the preparation of an annual audit of the funds at latest two months following the end of the fiscal year. The fiscal year starts on January, 1, and ends on December, 31.

4. The Advisor shall focus on relating the activities of the Society to teaching at Afghan faculties of economics and management. Together with the President, the Advisor shall liaise with the Ministry of Higher Education in terms of curriculum development and accreditation.

5. The Executive Board shall have the control and management of the funds of the Society. Within a term period, it may fill vacancies by appointing temporary officers, and may adopt any rules or regulations for the conduct of business not inconsistent with the constitution or with rules adopted at the AES General Meetings. It shall act as a committee on time and place of meetings and perform such other duties as the Association shall delegate to it. Board meetings do not require personal presence but can also be organized using internet-based technologies. A quorum shall consist of four voting members. All decisions of the Executive Board are finalized by the majority of votes of the Board’s members. The Executive Board shall be responsible for the following tasks.

Task 1: Promoting research activities

The Executive Board categorizes its Regular and Honorary Members into different fields of expertise and publishes researcher profiles on its website.

In cooperation with the AES membership, with Afghan and with international stakeholders, the Executive Board identifies priority areas for economic and business-related research, and make these priority areas known.

Provided that the Society itself has received third-party research funding or where it is asked to assist in the organization and implementation of third-party funded research, the Executive Board, in line with the AES regulations and with the rules and regulations issued by the donor, proposes research projects and issues calls for proposals to Regular and Honorary Members.

The Board distributes each proposal it receives to one to two reviewers, including Members and/or external reviewers. Reviews are organized as anonymous, if feasible as double blind reviews.

In the case of self-funded research, the Executive Board carries out the final decision on the implementation of a proposed research project based on the reviews it receives.

In case of third-party funding it prepares the funding decision of the donors using the same mechanism.

Task 2: Relation and Communication

The Executive Board is supporting the President in the communication and in maintaining official relationship with all national and international stakeholders.

Task 3: Publication

The Executive Board exercises general supervision and direction over the publications of the Society. It shall be the responsibility of the Board to make a general review of the regular publications of the Society.
The Executive Board is responsible for the development of the website, the use of social media as well as for setting up data depositories. The Board will approve the procedure of accession to the contents.

ARTICLE V. GENERAL MEETING

1. The General Meeting of the Society shall be held at such time and place as may be determined by the Executive Board. Notice on the Meeting’s time and place shall be given to members at least three months prior to such meeting. A quorum shall consist of twenty voting members.

2. A resolution adopted at a General Meeting in which fewer than fifty Regular Members of the Society have voted thereon shall be submitted to a vote by the full Regular Membership no later than the ballot for officers if a majority of the Executive Board determines that, because of the nature or consequences of the resolution, all members should have the opportunity to participate in the final decision. Upon such a determination by the Executive Board, the resolution shall cease to be effective and shall not become effective unless and until approved by a majority of ballots cast. Ballots shall be accompanied by (1) a brief statement by the sponsor or sponsors in support of the resolution, (2) a brief statement of the views of the Executive Board and, if the Board favors or takes no position on the resolution, (3) a brief statement by a person or persons whom the Board designates to represent opposing views.

ARTICLE VI. MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS

1. All questions regarding the interpretation of the by-laws are decided by the Executive Board.

2. Procedures and criteria which need to be implemented or changed to improve the effectiveness of the Society will be proposed by the executive board to the Regular Membership and will only be adopted after the approval by a majority vote of the Regular Membership.

3. In the event that the Society ceases its operations as determined by Executive Board, the vote of two third of the Regular Members will take the Society to dissolution. In case of dissolution the Board shall convey any remaining assets to the Afghan Ministry of Higher Education.

4. The founding members of the Society listed on the Certificate of Incorporation of the AES have a veto against dissolution of the Society for the period from April 2017 to March 2022